Psicopatologia em estudantes universitários: correlatos e o efeito de enviesamento potencial do examinador

Resumo

Contexto: Os sintomas psicopatológicos são muito comuns em estudantes universitários de diferentes culturas, mas os correlatos sociodemográficos são diferentes consoante os estudos. Adicionalmente, os correlatos em estudantes portugueses não foram ainda estudados de forma aprofundada, para além de que se levantam questões metodológicas neste tipo de estudos, no sentido de que não tem sido descrito quem faz as avaliações psicológicas.

Objetivos: O principal objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se existe diferença nos sintomas psicopatológicos entre dois grupos avaliados por dois examinadores diferentes, controlando o papel potencial da desejabilidade social, e de outras covariáveis eventuais. Além disso, queremos determinar o nível de psicopatologia e os seus correlatos sociodemográficos.

Métodos: Cento e oitenta e cinco estudantes universitários de Coimbra completaram o Inventário Breve de Sintomas/IBS e a Escala de Desejabilidade Social de Marlowe-Crowne. Num grupo, o examinador era da mesma idade e do mesmo estatuto académico que os alunos, enquanto no outro grupo o examinador era mais velho e professor. Estudámos as associações psicopatológicas através de correlações de Pearson e ponto bisserial e análises qui-quadrado, e controlámos o papel potencial das covariáveis através de ANCOVAs não-paramétricas de Quade.

Resultados: O nível de sofrimento foi menor em comparação com outras investigações. As mulheres apresentaram maior nível de sofrimento e mais sintomas de somatização, ansiedade, ansiedade fóbica, obsessivo-compulsivos e de depressão. Os alunos que moram mais longe tiveram mais ansiedade e sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos. O grupo avaliado pelo examinador mais jovem pontuou mais no índice de sofrimento e em alguns fatores do IBS, e tiveram níveis inferiores na desejabilidade social.

Conclusões: O sexo e distância de casa parecem fatores importantes para a saúde mental de estudantes universitários. No entanto, o examinador influencia a avaliação, provavelmente por causa da desejabilidade social, sugerindo que as características do examinador devem ser fornecidas em investigações envolvendo estudantes universitários.

 

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Biografias Autor

Helena Espirito Santo, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Professora Auxiliar, Neurociências, Neuropsicologia e Psicopatologia do Adulto. Co-cordenadora, Departamento de Investigação & Desenvolvimento do Instituto Superior Miguel Torga. Coordenadora, Gabinete de Apoio Psicológico do Instituto Superior Miguel Torga. Coimbra, Portugal.

Joana C Matreno, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Mestre em Psicologia Clínica pelo Instituto Superior Miguel Torga.

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Publicado
2015-02-28
Como Citar
Espirito Santo, H., & Matreno, J. C. (2015). Psicopatologia em estudantes universitários: correlatos e o efeito de enviesamento potencial do examinador. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 1(1), 42-51. https://doi.org/10.7342/ismt.rpics.2015.1.1.10
Secção
Artigo Original