Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal de idosos institucionalizados com Défice Cognitivo sem Demência

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.7342/ismt.rpics.2015.1.2.21

Palavras-chave:

Défice cognitivo sem demência, Reabilitação neuropsicológica grupal, Depressão, Solidão

Resumo

Contexto: O envelhecimento caracteriza-se frequentemente por alterações cognitivas que, por vezes, excedem o esperado para o envelhecimento normal. Estas alterações que não reúnem critérios de demência constituem o Défice Cognitivo sem Demência (DCSD) que, independente da etiologia, apresenta alta taxa de conversão para a demência. Objetivos: Investigar o efeito de um Programa de Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal (PRNG) no funcionamento cognitivo, executivo e emocional de idosos institucionalizados com DCSD. Métodos: A amostra incluiu 24 idosos institucionalizados com DCSD, com idades entre os 67 e 92 anos. Doze idosos foram submetidos ao PRNG e doze idosos ficaram em lista de espera. O estudo teve um desenho quasi-experimental e cego na reavaliação. O PRNG decorreu em 10 sessões de 90 minutos cada, uma vez por semana. Avaliou-se pré e pós-intervenção através da Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal, da Avaliação Breve do Estado Mental, da Bateria de Avaliação Frontal, da Escala da Depressão Geriátrica e da Escala da Solidão. Resultados: As ANCOVAs mostraram um efeito relevante do PRNG na melhoria do funcionamento executivo (ƞ2 = 0,26) e dos sentimentos de solidão (ƞ2 = 0,77), ambos com diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) na comparação entre o antes e depois da implementação do PRNG. No funcionamento cognitivo e na sintomatologia depressiva foi manifesto o agravamento no grupo de comparação (p < 0,05), sugerindo que o PRNG impede esse agravamento, mas a ANCOVA só foi significativa para o funcionamento cognitivo (ɳ2 = 0,26). Conclusão: O PRNG aplicado em idosos institucionalizados com DCSD oferece resultados promissores e evidencia eficácia na melhoria do funcionamento executivo e dos sentimentos de solidão. Impõe-se a replicação em amostras maiores e mais diversificadas e o estudo da generalização e manutenção dos resultados a longo prazo.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Abrisqueta-Gomez, J., Canali, F., Vieira, V. L. D., Aguiar, A. C. P., Ponce, C. S. C., Brucki, S. M. D., & Bueno, O. F. A. (2004). A longitudinal study of a neuropsychological rehabilitation program in Alzheimer's disease. Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria, 62(3B), 778–783. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Al Hazzouri, A. Z., Vittinghoff, E., Byers, A., Covinsky, K., Blazer, D., Diem, S., Ensrud, K. E., & Jaffe, K. (2014). Long-term cumulative depressive symptom burden and risk of cognitive decline and dementia among very old women. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69(5), 595–601. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Albert, M. S., DeKosky, S. T., Dickson, D., Dubois, B., Feldman, H. H., Fox, N. C., Gamst, A., Holtzman, D. M., Jagust, W. J., Petersen, R. C., Snyder, P. J., Carrillo, M. C., Thies, B., & Phelps, C. H. (2011). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(3), 270–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Alves, S. H. V. (2012). Estudo piloto de um programa de reabilitação cognitivo grupal e o seu impacto no funcionamento cognitivo e não-cognitivo em idosos sob resposta social [Pilot study of a group cognitive rehabilitation program and its impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning in the elderly under social response] (Unpublished master's thesis). Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra. [Handle]

Ball, K. K., Berch, D. B., Helmers, K. F., Jobe, J. B., Leveck, M. D., Marsiske, M., Morris, J. N., Rebok, G. W., Smith, D. M., Tennstedt, S. L., Unverzagt, F. W., Willis, S. L., & Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Study Group. (2002). Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(18), 2271–2281. [Google Scholar] [PMC]

Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (2003). New frontiers in the future of aging: From successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology, 49(2), 123–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Baltes, P. B., & Willis, S. L. (1982). Plasticity and enhancement of intellectual functioning in old age: Penn State's Adult Development and Enrichment Project (ADEPT). In F. I. M. Craik & S. Trehub (Eds.), Aging and cognitive processes (pp. 353–390). New York: Plenum Press. [Google Scholar]

Bernhardt, T., Maurer, K., & Frolich, L. (2002). Influence of a memory training program on attention and memory performance of patients with dementia. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 5(275), 821–831. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Bogner, H. R., Morales, K. H., Reynolds III, C. F., Cary, M. S., & Bruce, M. L. (2012). Course of depression and mortality among older primary care patients. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(10), 895–903. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Bohlmeijer, E., Valenkamp, M., Westerhof, G., Smit, F., & Cuijpers, P. (2005). Creative reminiscence as an early intervention for depression: Results of a pilot study. Aging & Mental Health, 9(4), 302-304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Boyke, J., Driemeyer, J., Gaser, C., Buchel, C., & May, A. (2008). Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 7031–7035. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Brown, R. M., Robertson, E. M., & Press, D. Z. (2009). Sequence skill acquisition and off-line learning in normal aging. PLoS ONE, 4(8), 1–5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Buchman, A. S., Boyle, P. A., Wilson, R. S., James, B. D., Leurgans, S. E., Arnold, S. E., & Bennet, D. A. (2010). Loneliness and the rate of motor decline in old age: The rush memory and aging project, a community-based cohort study. BMC Geriatrics, 10(77), 1-8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Byers, A. L., Vittinghoff, E., Lui, L.-Y., Hoang, T., Blazer, D. G., Covinsky, K. E., Ensrud, K. E., Cauley, J. A., Hillier, T. A., Fredman, L., & Jaffe, K. (2012). Twenty-year depressive trajectories among older women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(10), 1073–1079. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Calero, M. D., & Navarro, E. (2007). Cognitive plasticity as a modulating variable on the effects of memory training in elderly persons. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22(1), 63–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Chen, C., Dong, Y., Merchant, R., Collinson, S., Ting, E., Quah, S. L., Chan, Y. H., & Venketasubramanian, N. (2011). The Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is superior to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in detecting patient's with moderate cognitive impairment, no-dementia (CIND) and at high risk of dementia. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7(4), S240–S241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Chertkow, H., Massoud, F., Nasreddine, Z., Belleville, S., Joanette, Y., Bocti, C., Drolet, V., Kirk, J., Freedman, M., & Bergman, H. (2008). Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: 3. Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive impairment without dementia. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(10), 1273–1285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Chertkow, H., Nasreddine, Z., Joanette, Y., Drolet, V., Kirk, J., Massoud, F., Belleville, S., & Bergman, H. (2007). Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive impairment, no dementia: Part A, concept and diagnosis. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 3(4), 266–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Christensen, A.-L., & Uzzell, B. P. (2000). International handbook of neuropsychological rehabilitation. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. [Google Scholar]

Churchill, J. D., Galvez, R., Colcombe, S. J., Swain, R. A., Kramer, A. F., & Greenough, W. T. (2002). Exercise, experience and the aging brain. Neurobiology of Aging, 23(5), 941–955. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Clare, L., & Woods, B. (2003). Cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive training for early-stage Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, 1–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Clare, L., & Woods, R.T. (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation in dementia: A special issue of neuropsychological reabilitation. New York: Psychological Press. [Google Scholar]

Clare, L., Linden, D. E. J., Woods, R. T., Whitaker, R., Evans, S. J., Parkinson, C. H., van Paasschen, J., Nelis, S. M., Hoare, Z., Yuen, K. S., & Rugg, M. D. (2010). Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer disease: A single-blind randomized controlled trial of clinical efficacy. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(10), 928–939. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis (2nd ed., pp. 16-25, 283). New Jersey: Psychology Press. [Google Scholar]

Conrad, N., Doering, B. K., Rief, W., & Exner, C. (2010). Looking beyond the importance of life goals. The personal goal model of subjective well-being in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24(5), 431–443. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Costa, M. D., Espirito-Santo, H., Simões, S. C., Correia, A. R., Almeida, R., Ferreira, L., Caldas, L., Pena, I. T., Costa, A., Simões, D., Daniel, F., & Lemos, L. (2013). Correlates of elderly loneliness. European Psychiatry, 28(Suppl. 1). [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Dahlin, E., Nyberg, L., Bäckman, L., & Neely, A. S. (2008). Plasticity of executive functioning in young and older adults: Immediate training gains, transfer, and long-term maintenance. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 720–730. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Dubois, B., Slachevsky, A., Litvan, L., & Pillon, B. (2000). The FAB: A Frontal Assessment Battery at bedside. Neurology, 55(11), 1621-1626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Duffau, H. (2006). Brain plasticity: From pathophysiological mechanisms to therapeutic applications. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 13(9), 885–897. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Ellis, P. D. (2010). The essential guide to effect sizes: Statistical power, meta-analysis, and the interpretation of research results. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]

Espirito-Santo, H., & Daniel, F. B. (2015). Calcular e apresentar tamanhos do efeito em trabalhos científicos (1): As limitações do p < 0,05 na análise de diferenças de médias de dois grupos [Calculating and reporting effect sizes on scientific papers (1): p < 0.05 limitations in the analysis of mean differences of two groups]. Revista Portuguesa de Investigação Comportamental e Social, 1(1), 3–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Espírito-Santo, H., & Lemos, L. (2012). Manual de reabilitação neuropsicológica grupal. Coimbra: Instituto Superior Miguel Torga. [Google Scholar]

Espirito-Santo, H., Lemos, L., Torres-Pena, I., Vicente, F., Silva, F., Costa, M., Marques, M., Simões, S., Guadalupe, S., & Daniel, F. B. (2015). Bateria de avaliação frontal (FAB) [Frontal Assessment Battery]. In M. Simões, I. Santana; & Grupo de Estudos de Envelhecimento Cerebral e Demência. (Eds.), Escalas e testes na demência (3rd ed., pp. 68-75). Porto Salvo: Novartis. [Google Scholar]

Fama, R., & Sullivan, E. V. (2015). Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 54, 29–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Fei, M., Qu, Y. C., Wang, T., Yin, J., Bai, J. X., & Ding, Q. H. (2009). Prevalence and distribution of cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) among the aged population and the analysis of socio-demographic characteristics: The community-based cross-sectional study. Alzheimer Disease Association Disorder, 23(2), 130-138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed., p. 580). London: Sage. [Google Scholar]

Fjell, A. M., & Walhovd, K. B. (2010). Structural brain changes in aging: Courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 21(3), 187–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Fratiglioni, L., Paillard-Borg, S., & Winblad, B. (2004). An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. The Lancet Neurology, 3(6), 343–353. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Freitas, S., Simões, M. R., Alves, L., & Santana, I. (2015). Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In M. R. Simões, I. Santana, & Grupo de Estudos de Envelhecimento Cerebral e Demência. (Eds.), Escalas e testes na demência (3rd ed., pp. 24-29). Porto Salvo: Novartis. [Google Scholar]

Fried, L. P., Carlson, M. C., Freedman, M., Frick, K. D., Glass, T. A., Hill, J., McGill, S., Rebok, G. W., Seeman, T., Tielsch, J., Wasik, B. A., & Zeger, S. (2004). A social model for health promotion for an aging population: Initial evidence on the Experience Corps model. Journal of Urban Health, 81(1), 64–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Fritsch, T., McClendon, M. J., Smyth, K. A., & Ogrocki, P. K. (2002). Effects of educational attainment and occupational status on cognitive and functional decline in persons with Alzheimer-type dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 14(4), 347-363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] https://doi.org/10.1017/s1041610202008554

Gaitán, A., Garolera, M., Cerulla, N., Chico, G., Rodriguez-Querol, M., & Canela-Soler, J. (2013). Efficacy of an adjunctive computer-based cognitive training program in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(1), 91–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Ganguli, M., Du, Y., Dodge, H. H., Ratcliff, G. G., & Chang, C. C. (2006). Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in late life: A prospective epidemiological study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 153-160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Gold, D. A. (2012). An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34(1), 11–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Graham, J. E., Rockwood, K., Beattie, B. L., Eastwood, R., Gauthier, S., & Tuokko, H. (1997). Prevalence and severity of cognitive impairment with and without dementia in an elderly population. Lancet, 349, 1793-1796. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Gure, T. R., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Piette, J. D., & Plassman, B. L. (2013). Functional limitations in older adults who have cognitive impairment without dementia. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 26(2), 78–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., & Wilson, R. S. (2008). Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced?. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(1), 1–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Jean, L., Bergeron, M.-E., Thivierge, S., & Simard, M. (2010). Cognitive intervention programs for individuals with mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of the literature. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(4), 281–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Jekel, K., Damian, M., Wattmo, C., Hausner, L., Bullock, R., Connelly, P. J., Dubois, B., Eriksdotter, M., Ewers, M., Graessel, E., Kramberger, M. G., Law, E., Mecocci, P., Molinuevo, J. L., Nygård, L., Olde-Rikkert, M. G., Orgogozo, J. M., Pasquier, F., Peres, K., Salmon, E., Sikkes, S. A., Sobow, T., Spiegel, R., Tsolaki, M., Winblad, B., & Frölich, L. (2015). Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: A systematic review. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 7(1), 17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Kahokehr, A., Siegert, R. J., & Weatherall, M. (2004). The frequency of executive cognitive impairment in elderly rehabilitation inpatients. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 17(2), 68–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Kitwood, T. (1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. Open University Press, 20, 7-8. [Google Scholar]

Krampe, R.T. (2002). Aging, expertise and fine motor movement. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 769–776. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]

Liesbeth, W. A., Prins, J. B., Vernooij-Dassen, M. J. F. J., Wijnen, H. H., Olde Rikkert, M. G. M., & Kessels, R. P. C. (2011). Group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: Results of a waiting-list controlled trial. Gerontology, 57(5), 444–454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Lin, F. R., Yaffe, K., Xia, J., Xue, Q.-L., Harris, T. B., Purchase-Helzner, E., Satterfield, S. Ayonayon, H. N., Ferrucci, L., Simonsick, E. M., & Health ABC Study Group. (2013). Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(4), 293–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Lindsay, J., Sykes, E., McDowell, I., Verreault, R., & Laurin, D. (2004). More than the epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: Contributions of the Canadian study of health and aging. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(2), 83-91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Lopez, O. L. (2013). Mild cognitive impairment. Continuum, 19(2), 411–424. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Lövdén, M., Bäckman, L., Lindenberger, U., Schaefer, S., & Schmiedek, F. (2010). A theoretical framework for the study of adult cognitive plasticity. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4), 659–676. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Morgado, J., Rocha, C. S., Maruta, C., Guerreiro, M., & Martins, I. P. (2009). Novos valores normativos do mini-mental state examination [New normative values of mini-mental state examination]. Sinapse, 9(2), 10–16. [Google Scholar] [URL]

Naismith, S. L., Longley, W. A., Scott, E. M., & Hickie, I. A. (2007). Disability in major depression related to self rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: A preliminary study. Biomed Central Psychiatry, 7(32), 1-7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Nasreddine, Z., Phillips, N., Bédirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., Cummings, J. L., & Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695-699. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Noack, H., Lövdén, M., Schmiedek, F., & Lindenberger, U. (2009). Cognitive plasticity in adulthood and old age: Gauging the generality of cognitive intervention effects. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 27(5), 435–453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Noice, H., & Noice, T. (2008). An arts intervention for older adults living in subsidized retirement homes. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 16(1), 56–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Noice, H., Noice, T., & Staines, G. (2004). A short-term intervention to enhance cognitive and affective functioning in older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 16(4), 562–585. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Olazarán, J., Reisberg, B., Clare, L., Cruz, I., Peña-Casanova, J., Del-Ser, T., Woods, B., Beck, C., Auer, S., Lai, C., Spector, A., Fazio, S., Bond, J., Kivipelto, M., Brodaty, H., Rojo, J. M., Collins, H., Teri, L., Mittelman, M., Orrell, M., Feldman, H. H., & Muñiz, R. (2010). Nonpharmacological therapies in Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review of efficacy. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 30(2), 161–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Parikh, P. K., Troyer, A. K., Maione, A. M., & Murphy, K. J. (2015). The impact of memory change on daily life in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. The Gerontologist, 56(5), 877-885. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Peters, M. E., Rosenberg, P. B., Steinberg, M., Norton, M. C., Welsh-Bohmer, K. A., Hayden, K. M., Breitner, J., Tschanz, J. T., Lyketsos, C. G., & Cache County Investigators. (2013). Neuropsychiatric symptoms as risk factors for progression from CIND to dementia: The Cache County Study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(11), 1116-1124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Petersen, R. C., Caracciolo, B., Brayne, C., Gauthier, S., Jelic, V., & Fratiglioni, L. (2014). Mild cognitive impairment: A concept in evolution. Journal of Internal Medicine, 275(3), 214–228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Pettigrew, C., & Martin, R. C. (2014). Cognitive declines in healthy aging: Evidence from multiple aspects of interference resolution. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 187–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Heeringa, S. G., Weir, D. R., Ofstedal, M. B., Burke, J. R., Hurd, M. D., Potter, G. G., Rodgers, W. L., Steffens, D. C., McArdle, J. J., Willis, R. J., & Wallace, R. B. (2008). Prevalence of cognitive impairment without dementia in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(6), 427–434. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Pocinho, M. T. S., Farate, C., Amaral Dias, C., Lee, T. T., & Yesavage, J. A. (2009). Clinical and psychometric validation of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for portuguese elders. Clinical Gerontologist, 32(2), 223–236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Pocinho, M., Farate, C., & Dias, C. A. (2010). Validação psicométrica da escala UCLA-Loneliness para idosos portugueses [Psychometric Validation of the UCLA-Loneliness Scale for Portuguese Elderly]. Interações, 10(18), 65–77. [Google Scholar] [URL]

Poletti, M., Frosini, D., Pagni, C., Baldacci, F., Giuntini, M., Mazzucchi, S., Tognoni, G., Lucetti, C., Del-Dotto, P., Ceravolo, R., & Bonuccelli, U. (2013). The relationship between motor symptom lateralization and cognitive performance in newly diagnosed drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section a, 35(2), 124-131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Potvin, O., Hudon, C., Grenier, S., & Préville, M. (2010). Non-essential symptoms of depression and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) in community-dwelling elders without dysphoria or anhedonia. International Psychogeriatrics, 22(8), 1344–1352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Prigatano, G. P. (1997). Learning from our successes and failures: Reflections and comments on “cognitive rehabilitation: How it is and how it might be.” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 3(5), 497–499. [Google Scholar]

Prolo, P., Fanto, F., Santoro, M., & Tisci, C. (2004). P1-328 Long-term reality orientation therapy (ROT) in subjects with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Neurobiology of Aging, 25(Suppl. 2), 190-191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Pustokhanova, L., & Morozova, E. (2013). Cognitive impairment and hypothymia in post stroke patients. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 325(1-2), 43–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Rajeswaran, J. (2013). Neuropsychological rehabilitation: Principles and applications. London: Elsevier Inc. [Google Scholar]

Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H., de Leon, M. J., Sinaiko, E., Franssen, E., Kluger, A., Mir, P., Borenstein, J., George, A. E., Shulman, E., Steinberg, G., & Cohen, J. (1988). Stage‐specific behavioral, cognitive, and in vivo changes in community residing subjects with age‐associated memory impairment and primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type. Drug Development Research, 15(3), 101–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Ribeiro, P. F. M., Ventura-Antunes, L., Gabi, M., Mota, B., Grinberg, L. T., Farfel, J. M., Ferretti-Rebustini, R. E., Leite, R. E., Filho, W. J., & Herculano-Houzel, S. (2013). The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the gray matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 7(28), 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Roberts, R. O., Geda, Y. E., Knopman, D. S., Cha, R. H., Pankratz, V. S., Boeve, B. F., Tangalos, E. G., Ivnik, R. J., Mielke, M. M., & Petersen, R. C. (2013). Cardiac disease associated with increased risk of nonamnestic cognitive impairment: Stronger effect on women. JAMA Neurology, 70(3), 374–382. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Rozzini, L., Costardi, D., Chilovi, B. V., Franzoni, S., Trabucchi, M., & Padovani, A. (2007). Efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(4), 356–360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Ferguson, M. L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42(3), 290–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Scarmeas, N., Levy, G., Tang, M. X., Manly, J., & Stern, Y. (2001). Influence of leisure activity on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 57(12), 2236–2242. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Silver, H., Goodman, C., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., & Bilker, W. B. (2011). “Executive” functions and normal aging: Selective impairment in conditional exclusion compared to abstraction and inhibition. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31(1), 53–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Smith, G., & Rush, B. K. (2006). Normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. In D. K. Attix & K. A. Welsh-Bohmer (Ed.), Geriatric neuropsychology assessment and intervention (pp. 27-55). New York: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]

Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). Cognitive rehabilitation: An integrative neuropsychological approach. New York: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]

Sousa, M. (2014). The impact of four stimulation sessions in older people in retirement homes. Iberian Journal of Clinical and Forensic Neuroscience 2(4), 537-551. [Google Scholar] [URL]

St. John, P. D., & Montgomery, P. R. (2010). Cognitive impairment and life satisfaction in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(8), 814–821. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Stein, J., Luppa, M., Luck, T., Maier, W., Wagner, M., Daerr, M., & van den Bussche, H. (2012). The assessment of changes in cognitive functioning: Age-, education-, and gender-specific reliable change indices for older adults tested on the CERAD-NP battery: Results of the German study on ageing, cognition, and dementia in primary care patients. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(1), 84–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A Compendium of neuropsychological tests. Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]

Sutter, C., Zöllig, J., & Martin, M. (2013). Plasticity of verbal fluency in older adults: A 90-minute telephone-based intervention. Gerontology, 59(1), 53–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Teng, E., Tassniyom, K., & Lu, P. H. (2012). Reduced quality-of-life ratings in mild cognitive impairment: Analyses of subject and informant responses. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(12), 1016–1025. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Thompson, G., & Foth, D. (2005). Cognitive-training programs for older adults: What are they and can they enhance mental fitness?. Educational Gerontology, 31(8), 603–626. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Tranter, L. J., & Koutstaal, W. (2008). Age and flexible thinking: An experimental demonstration of the beneficial effects of increased cognitively stimulating activity on fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 15(2), 184–207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Tsolaki, M., Kounti, F., Agogiatou, C., Poptsi, E., Bakoglidou, E., Zafeiropoulou, M., Soumbourou, A., Nikolaidou, E., Batsila, G., Siambani, A., Nakou, S., Mouzakidis, C., Tsiakiri, A., Zafeiropoulos, S., Karagiozi, K., Messini, C., Diamantidou, A., & Vasiloglou, M. (2011). Effectiveness of nonpharmacological approaches in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Neurodegenerative Diseases, 8(3), 138–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Tuokko, H., & Frerichs, R. J. (2000). Cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND): Longitudinal studies, the findings, and the issues. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 14(4), 504-25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Tuokko, H., Frerichs, R., Graham, J., Rockwood, K., Kristjansson, B., Fisk, J., Bergman, H., Kozma, A., & McDowell, I. (2003). Five-year follow-up of cognitive impairment with no dementia. Archives of Neurology, 60, 577-582. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Unverzagt, F. W., Kasten, L., Johnson, K. E., Rebok, G. W., Marsiske, M., Koepke, K. M., Elias, J. W., Morris, J. N., Willis, S. L., Ball, K., Rexroth, D. F., Smith, D. M., Wolinsky, F. D., & Tennstedt, S. L. (2007). Effect of memory impairment on training outcomes in ACTIVE. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 13(6), 953–960. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

van der Linde, R., Stephan, B. C., Matthews, F. E., Brayne, C., Savva, G. M., & The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. (2010). Behavioural and psychological symptoms in the older population without dementia - Relationship with socio-demographics, health and cognition. BMC Geriatrics, 10(1), 87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Vance, D., Dawson, J., Wadley, V., Edwards, J., Roenker, D., Rizzo, M., & Ball, K. K. (2007). The accelerate study: The longitudinal effect of speed of processing training on cognitive performance of older adults. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(1), 89–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Vicente, F., Espirito-Santo, H., Cardoso, D., da Silva, F., Costa, M., Martins, S., Torres-Pena, I., Pascoal, V., Rodrigues, F., Pinto, A., Guadalupe, S., Testa-Vicente, H., & Lemos, L. (2014). Estudo longitudinal dos fatores associados à evolução de sintomas depressivos em idosos institucionalizados [Longitudinal study of factors associated with the development of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly]. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria, 63(4), 308–316. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Walhovd, K. B., Fjell, A. M., Reinvang, I., Lundervold, A., Dale, A. M., Eilertsen, D. E., Quinn, B. T., Salat, D., Makris, N., & Fischl, B. (2005). Effects of age on volumes of cortex, white matter and subcortical structures. Neurobiology of Aging, 26(9), 1261–1270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Wilson, B. A. (2008). Neuropsychological rehabilitation. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 141–162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Wilson, R. S., Mendes De Leon, C. F., Barnes, L. L., Schneider, J. A., Bienias, J. L., Evans, D. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2002). Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(6), 742–748. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Winblad, B., Palmer, K., & Kivipelto, M. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment–beyond controversies, towards a consensus: Report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256(3), 240–246. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Winocur, G., Palmer, H., Dawson, D., Binns, M. A., Bridges, K., & Stuss, D. T. (2007). Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: An evaluation of psychosocial factors. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 13(1), 153–165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37-42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Zöllig, J., Mattli, F., Sutter, C., Aurelio, A., & Martin, M. (2012). Plasticity of prospective memory through a familiarization intervention in old adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19(1-2), 168–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Downloads

Publicado

2015-09-30

Como Citar

Silva, G. F., Espírito Santo, H. M., Costa, M. F., Cardoso, D. C. M., Vicente, F., Martins, S. do C., & Lemos, L. (2015). Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal de idosos institucionalizados com Défice Cognitivo sem Demência. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 1(2), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.7342/ismt.rpics.2015.1.2.21

Edição

Secção

Secção Temática