Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal de idosos institucionalizados com Défice Cognitivo sem Demência

  • Giseli Fabiana Silva Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
  • Helena Maria Espírito Santo Instituto Superior Miguel Torga http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2625-3754
  • Marina Fernandes Costa Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
  • Diana Catarina Marques Cardoso Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
  • Filomena Vicente Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
  • Sónia do Carmo Martins Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
  • Laura Lemos Instituto Superior Miguel Torga http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9624-8312
Palavras-chave: Défice cognitivo sem demência, Reabilitação neuropsicológica grupal, Depressão, Solidão

Resumo

Contexto: O envelhecimento caracteriza-se frequentemente por alterações cognitivas que, por vezes, excedem o esperado para o envelhecimento normal. Estas alterações que não reúnem critérios de demência constituem o Défice Cognitivo sem Demência (DCSD) que, independente da etiologia, apresenta alta taxa de conversão para a demência.

Objetivos: Investigar o efeito de um Programa de Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal (PRNG) no funcionamento cognitivo, executivo e emocional de idosos institucionalizados com DCSD.

Métodos: A amostra incluiu 24 idosos institucionalizados com DCSD, com idades entre os 67 e 92 anos. Doze idosos foram submetidos ao PRNG e doze idosos ficaram em lista de espera. O estudo teve um desenho quasi-experimental e cego na reavaliação. O PRNG decorreu em 10 sessões de 90 minutos cada, uma vez por semana. Avaliou-se pré e pós-intervenção através da Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal, da Avaliação Breve do Estado Mental, da Bateria de Avaliação Frontal, da Escala da Depressão Geriátrica e da Escala da Solidão.

Resultados: As ANCOVAs mostraram um efeito relevante do PRNG na melhoria do funcionamento executivo (ƞ2 = 0,26) e dos sentimentos de solidão (ƞ2 = 0,77), ambos com diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) na comparação entre o antes e depois da implementação do PRNG. No funcionamento cognitivo e na sintomatologia depressiva foi manifesto o agravamento no grupo de comparação (p < 0,05), sugerindo que o PRNG impede esse agravamento, mas a ANCOVA só foi significativa para o funcionamento cognitivo (ɳ2 = 0,26).

Conclusão: O PRNG aplicado em idosos institucionalizados com DCSD oferece resultados promissores e evidencia eficácia na melhoria do funcionamento executivo e dos sentimentos de solidão. Impõe-se a replicação em amostras maiores e mais diversificadas e o estudo da generalização e manutenção dos resultados a longo prazo.

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Biografias Autor

Giseli Fabiana Silva, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Mestre em psicologia clínica. Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra, Portugal.

Helena Maria Espírito Santo, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Professora auxiliar. Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra, Portugal.

Marina Fernandes Costa, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Mestre em psicologia clínica. Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra, Portugal.

Diana Catarina Marques Cardoso, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Mestre em psicologia clínica. Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra, Portugal.

Filomena Vicente, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Mestre em psicologia clínica. Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra, Portugal.

Sónia do Carmo Martins, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Mestre em psicologia clínica. Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra, Portugal.

Laura Lemos, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga

Professora auxiliar convidada. Psicóloga clínica. Instituto Superior Miguel Torga, Coimbra, Portugal.

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Publicado
2015-09-30
Como Citar
Silva, G. F., Espírito Santo, H. M., Costa, M. F., Cardoso, D. C. M., Vicente, F., Martins, S. do C., & Lemos, L. (2015). Reabilitação Neuropsicológica Grupal de idosos institucionalizados com Défice Cognitivo sem Demência. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 1(2), 31-45. https://doi.org/10.7342/ismt.rpics.2015.1.2.21
Secção
Secção Temática

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