Ansiedade cognitiva de provas em universitários do Brasil: O papel das variáveis sociodemográficas e traços de personalidade

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31211/rpics.2022.8.1.246

Palavras-chave:

Ansiedade à Prova, Personalidade, Psicologia, Universitários, Estudo ex-post facto

Resumo

Objetivo: A presente pesquisa objetivou verificar o poder preditivo dos traços de personalidade, controlando o efeito das variáveis sociodemográficas (gênero e período que está cursando), na explicação da ansiedade cognitiva em avaliações. Métodos: Duzentos estudantes universitários de instituições públicas da cidade de Parnaíba, Piauí, (Midade = 23,97), em maioria mulheres (75%) e cursando Psicologia (52,5%) foram avaliados através da Escala de Ansiedade Cognitiva em provas, o Inventário dos Cinco Grandes Fatores da Personalidade e questões sociodemográficas. Resultados: As análises de correlação de Pearson e de regressão linear múltipla hierárquica mostraram que os traços de personalidade conscienciosidade (β = -0,15; p < 0,01), neuroticismo (β = 0,35; p < 0,01) e o gênero do participante (β = -0,19; p < 0,05) contribuem de maneira significativa para a explicação da ansiedade cognitiva de provas acadêmicas, com o modelo explicando cerca de 20% da sua variância. Os resultados sugeriram ainda que a conscienciosidade pode funcionar como um fator de proteção e o neuroticismo um agente de vulnerabilidade de sintomas ansiosos em contextos avaliativos, principalmente em mulheres, não havendo diferença quanto ao período cursado. Conclusões: Os achados enfatizam a importância de serem realizadas propostas psicoeducativas interventivas, particularmente em mulheres com acentuado nível de neuroticismo. 

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Agbaria, Q., & Mokh, A. A. (2021). Coping with stress during the coronavirus outbreak: The contribution of big five personality traits and social support. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/hpct

Arana, F. G., & Furlan, L. (2016). Groups of perfectionists, test anxiety, and pre-exam coping in Argentine students. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 169–173. https://doi.org/f75zxn

Asghari, A., Kadir, R. B. A., Elias, H. B., & Baba, M. B. (2013). Personality traits and examination anxiety: moderating role of gender. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 59(1), 45–54. https://bit.ly/39QC3su

Aydın, G., & Güneri, O. Y. (2020). Exploring the role of psychological inflexibility, rumination, perfectionism cognitions, cognitive defusion, and self-forgiveness in cognitive test anxiety. Current Psychology, 39, 1–10. https://doi.org/hpcv

Bellingtier, J. A., Mund. M., & Wrzus, C. (2021). The role of extraversion and neuroticism for experiencing stress during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Current Psychology, 40(12), 1–11. https://doi.org/hpcw

Boyes, M. E., & French, D. J. (2010). Neuroticism, stress, and coping in the context of an anagram-solving task. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(5), 380–385. https://doi.org/dhdm7n

Bozkurt, S., Ekitli, G. B., Thomas C. L., & Cassady, J. C. (2017). Validation of the Turkish version of the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale–Revised. SAGE Open, 7, 1–9. https://doi.org/hpcx

Brandmo, C., Bråten, I., & Schewe, O. (2019). Social and personal predictors of test anxiety among Norwegian secondary and postsecondary students. Social Psychology of Education, 22(1), 43–61. https://doi.org/hpcz

Burcas, S., & Creţu, R. Z. (2021). Multidimensional perfectionism and test anxiety: A meta-analytic review of two decades of research. Educational Psychology Review, 33(1), 249–273. https://doi.org/gg4m2r

Burhan, H. S., Karadere, M. E., Safak, Y., & Kuru, T. (2020). Investigation of the factors affecting cognitive test anxiety in university students. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 33, 254–260. https://doi.org/hpc2

Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(2), 270–295. https://doi.org/dcqxs6

Cavalcanti, J. G., Pimentel, C. E., Nascimento, T. G., & Moura, G. B. (2019). Cinco grandes fatores de personalidade como preditores das atitudes frente à pena de morte. Revista Ciência & Polícia, 5(2), 104–120. https://bit.ly/3FLZLC5

Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Ahmetoglua, G., & Furnham, A. (2008). Little more than personality: Dispositional determinants of test anxiety (the Big Five, core self-evaluations, and self-assessed intelligence). Learning and Individual Differences, 18(2), 258–263. https://doi.org/b3rdfw

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2.ª ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

De Raad, B., & Mlačić, B. (2017). The lexical foundation of the Big Five Factor Model. In T. A. Widiger (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the Five Factor Model (pp. 191–216). Oxford University Press.

Dominguez-Lara, S. (2018). Evidencias convergente y discriminante del TAI-Estado: influencia de las estrategias de afrontamiento pre-examen. Revista Digital de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria, 12(1), 237–255. https://doi.org/hpc3

Espirito-Santo, S. H., & Daniel, F. (2017). Calcular e apresentar tamanhos do efeito em trabalhos científicos (2): guia para reportar a força das relações. Revista Portuguesa de Investigação Comportamental e Social, 3(1), 53–64. https://doi.org/gm3m

Eum, K., & Rice, K. G. (2011). Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24(2), 167–178. https://doi.org/b844r3

Flesia, L., Monaro, M., Mazza, C., Fietta, V., Colicino, E., Segatto, B., & Roma, P. (2020). Predicting perceived stress related to the COVID-19 outbreak through stable psychological traits and machine learning models. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(10), 1–17. https://doi.org/gh29g6

Gouveia, V. V., Araújo, R. C. R., Oliveira, I. C. V., Gonçalves, M. P., Milfont, T., Coelho, G. L., Santos, W., Medeiros, E. M., Soares, A. K. S., Monteiro, R. P., Andrade, J. M., Cavalcanti, T. M., Nascimento, B. S., & Gouveia, R. (2021). A Short version of the Big Five inventory (BFI-20): Evidence on construct validity. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 55(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/hpc4

Huntley, C., Young, B., Tudur Smith, C., Jha, V., & Fisher, P. (2022). Testing times: the association of intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs to test anxiety in college students. BMC psychology, 10(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/hpc5

John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). Big Five Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/t07550-000

Jolly, A. T., Garratt-Reed, D., & McEvoy, P. M. (2021). Does repetitive negative thinking mediate the relationship between perfectionistic concerns and cognitive test anxiety?. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 34, 1–11. https://doi.org/fmc6

Krispenz, A., Gort, C., Schültke, L., & Dickhäuser, O. (2019). How to reduce test anxiety and academic procrastination through inquiry of cognitive appraisals: A pilot study investigating the role of academic self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1917. https://doi.org/gg79dc

Kumar, V., Dudani, R., & Latha, K. (2021). The Big Five personality traits and psychological biases: An exploratory study. Current Psychology, 40(6), 1–11. https://doi.org/hpc8

Laros, J. A., Peres, A. J. D. S., Andrade, J. M. D., & Passos, M. F. D. (2018). Validity evidence of two short scales measuring the Big Five personality factors. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 31, 1–10. https://doi.org/hpc9

Liu, Y., Pan, H., Yang, R., Wang, X., Rao, J., Zhang, X., & Pan, C. (2021). The relationship between test anxiety and emotion regulation: The mediating effect of psychological resilience. Annals of General Psychiatry, 20(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/gn4c2w

Lockwood, A. B., Farmer, R. L., Bohan, K. J., Winans, S., & Sealander, K. (2021). Academic achievement test use and assessment practices: A national survey of special education administrators. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 39(4), 436–451. https://doi.org/hpdb

Maier, A., Schaitz, C., Kröner, J., Connemann, B., & Sosic-Vasic, Z. (2020). Imagery rescripting: Exploratory evaluation of a short intervention to reduce test anxiety in university students. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 1–10. https://doi.org/hpdc

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1999). A Five-Factor theory of personality. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 139–153). Guilford Press.

McEvoy, P. M. (2019). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety disorders: A review of recent advances and future research directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 21, Artigo 29. https://doi.org/hpdd

Medeiros, E. D., Silva, P. G. N., Medeiros, P. C. B., Sousa, G. M., Nunes, C. C., Fonseca, P. N., & Gomes, E. B. (2020). Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale: Propriedades psicométricas no contexto brasileiro. Salud & Sociedad, 11, e3923. https://doi.org/hpdf

Medeiros, E. D., Silva, P. G. N., Reis, L. M., Monteiro, R. P., Coelho, G. L. O., Guimarães, C. L. C., & Medeiros, P. C. B. (2021). Psychometric properties of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) in Brazil. Death Studies. https://doi.org/hpdg

Mirhaghi, M., & Sarabian, S. (2016). Relationship between perceived stress and personality traits in emergency medical personnel. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 18(5), 265–271. https://doi.org/hpdh

Modesto, J. G., Pereira, K., & Carvalho, R. (2021). Associação entre os cinco grandes fatores da personalidade e a intenção de corrupção. Actualidades en Psicología, 35(131), 87–101. https://bit.ly/3NjezLh

Nazari-Shirkouhi, S., Mousakhani, S., Tavakoli, M., Dalvand, M. R., Šaparauskas, J., & Antuchevičienė, J. (2020). Balanced scorecard baseado em análise de desempenho e importância para avaliação de desempenho em instituições de ensino superior: uma abordagem fuzzy integrada. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 21(3), 647–678. https://doi.org/hpdm

Ne’Eman-Haviv, V., & Bonny-Noach, H. (2019). Substances as self-treatment for cognitive test anxiety among undergraduate students. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 51(1), 78–84. https://doi.org/gfw46h

Osimo, S. A., Aiello. M., Gentili, C., Ionta, S., & Cecchetto, C. (2021). The influence of personality, resilience, and alexithymia on mental health during COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1–10. https://doi.org/gk489r

Pasquali, L. (2016). TEP – Técnicas de Exame Psicológico: Os fundamentos. Vetor editora.

Patil, S. G., & Aithala, M. R. (2017). Exam anxiety: Its prevalence and causative factors among Indian medical students. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7(12), 1–6. https://doi.org/hpdn

Prada-Chapoñan, R., Navarro-Loli, J., & Dominguez-Lara, S. (2020). Personalidad y agotamiento emocional académico en estudiantes universitarios peruanos: Un estudio predictivo. Revista Digital de Investigación en Docencia Universitaria, 14(2), e1227. https://doi.org/hpdp

Rosenthal, J. A. (1996). Qualitative descriptors of strength of association and effect size. Journal of Social Service Research, 21(4), 37-59. https://doi.org/bcfsp2

Sarason, I. G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 929–938. https://doi.org/c99

Schillinger, F. L., Mosbacher, J. A., Brunner, C., Vogel, S. E., & Grabner, R. H. (2021). Revisiting the role of worries in explaining the link between test anxiety and test performance. Educational Psychology Review, 33, 1887–1906. https://doi.org/gkr7f5

Schmiedeberg, C., & Thönnissen, C. (2021). Positive and negative perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic: Does personality play a role? Social Science & Medicine, 276, Artigo 113859. https://doi.org/gnkc5x

Shimave, S., Cerkez, Y., & Baysen, E. (2020). An empirical study on the relationship between causes of teacher examination anxiety and dimensions of coping with pre-exam anxiety: A structural equation modelling approach. Psychologica Belgica, 60(1), 255–269. https://doi.org/hpdq

Sommer, M., & Arendasy, M. E. (2014). Comparing different explanations of the effect of test anxiety on respondents' test scores. Intelligence, 42, 115–127. https://doi.org/f5svfg

Stajkovic, A. D., Bandura, A., Locke, E. A., Lee, D., & Sergent, K. (2018). Test of three conceptual models of influence of the big five personality traits and self-efficacy on academic performance: A meta-analytic path-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 238–245. https://doi.org/gf5p7q

Stoeber, J., Feast, A. R., & Hayward, J. A. (2009). Self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism: Differential relationships with intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and test anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 423–428. https://doi.org/dtz4jk

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6ª ed.) Pearson Education.

Thomas, C. L., & Cassady, J. C. (2019). The influence of personality factors, value appraisals, and control appraisals on cognitive test anxiety. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10), 1568–1582. https://doi.org/ht4m

Thomas, C. L., Cassady, J. C., & Heller, M. L. (2017). The influence of emotional intelligence, cognitive test anxiety, and coping strategies on undergraduate academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 55(1), 40–48. https://doi.org/gbk67b

Torrano, R., Ortigosa, J. M., Riquelme, A., Méndez, F. J., & López-Pina, J. A. (2020). Test anxiety in adolescent students: Different responses according to the components of anxiety as a function of sociodemographic and academic variables. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1–8. https://doi.org/hpdr

Tsegay, L., Shumet, S., Damene, W., Gebreegziabhier, G., & Ayano, G. (2019). Prevalence and determinants of test anxiety among medical students in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/fwwj

Vanstone, D. M., & Hicks, R. E. (2019). Transitioning to university: coping styles as mediators between adaptive-maladaptive perfectionism and test anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 68–75. https://doi.org/gprmtt

Von der Embse, N., Jester, D., Roy, D., & Post, J. (2018). Test anxiety effects, predictors, and correlates: A 30-year meta-analytic review. Journal of affective disorders, 227, 483–493. https://doi.org/gc2r5t

Weiner, B. A., & Carton, J. S. (2012). Avoidant coping: A mediator of maladaptive perfectionism and test anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(5), 632–636. https://doi.org/fxzv39

Downloads

Publicado

17-05-2022

Como Citar

Nascimento da Silva, P. G. N., Ramnsés Silva e Araújo, de Araújo, G. R. ., Alves, M. E. da S., de Medeiros, P. C. B., Patrícia Nunes da Fonseca, & Emerson Diógenes de Medeiros. (2022). Ansiedade cognitiva de provas em universitários do Brasil: O papel das variáveis sociodemográficas e traços de personalidade. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 8(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.31211/rpics.2022.8.1.246

Edição

Secção

Artigo Original