Propriedades psicométricas da versão portuguesa do Inventário Geriátrico de Ansiedade numa amostra de idosos utentes de estruturas residenciais

Fernanda Daniel, Henrique Vicente, Sónia Guadalupe, Alexandre Silva, Helena Maria Amaral Espirito Santo

Resumo


Contexto: O progressivo aumento na prevalência, tanto de sintomatologia como de perturbações de ansiedade nas idades avançadas, aconselha a utilização extensiva de inventários no rastreio nesta população que, em todos os lugares do mundo, se tem tornado cada vez mais numericamente expressiva.

Objetivos: O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados dos estudos de validação e de fidedignidade da versão portuguesa do Inventário Geriátrico de Ansiedade (GAI) numa amostra de idosos institucionalizados.

Métodos: Depois da tradução e retroversão do GAI, a versão portuguesa foi administrada a 805 idosos institucionalizados. A fidedignidade da escala foi avaliada através do coeficiente alfa de Cronbach e a validade fatorial através do método de extração de componentes principais. O estudo da validade convergente foi efetuado com a Escala Geriátrica de Depressão e com a Lista de Afetos Negativos, enquanto a validade descriminante foi efetuada com a Lista de Afetos Positivos e a Escala de Satisfação com a Vida. Utilizámos a análise fatorial confirmatória com recurso aos modelos de equações estruturais. Usámos a área sob a curva ROC (AUC) para prever a presença de perturbação de ansiedade generalizada.

Resultados: A escala apresenta boa consistência interna (α = 0,94) e bons indicadores de validade convergente e divergente, todos significativos. O modelo revelou uma boa qualidade de ajustamento aos dados (χ2/gl = 2,81; TLI = 0,96; CFI = 0,96; RMSEA = 0,05), apoiando uma solução de um fator único. A análise ROC revelou uma sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 84,7% na deteção de perturbação de ansiedade generalizada com um ponto de corte de 13 (AUC = 0,92). Finalmente, verificou-se que as mulheres apresentam pontuações médias mais altas do que os homens.

Conclusões: O GAI apresenta boas qualidades psicométricas e fatorial para medir sintomas de ansiedade em rastreios epidemiológicos e em contextos de institucionalização geriátrica.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7342/ismt.rpics.2015.1.2.22

Palavras-chave


Ansiedade; Autorrelato; População Idosa; Psicometria

Texto Completo:

PDF HTML

Referências


American Psychiatric Association. (2014). DSM-5. Manual de diagnóstico e estatística das perturbações mentais. (Médicos do Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa, J. C. Fernandes) (5th ed.). Lisboa: Climepsi Editores.

Amorim, P. (2000). Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): Validation of a short structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 22(3), 106-115. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-44462000000300003.

Ayers, C. R., Sorrell, J. T., Thorp, S. R., & Wetherell, J. L. (2007). Evidence-based psychological treatments for late-life anxiety. Psychology and Aging, 22(1), 8-17. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.22.1.8

Barreto, J., Leuschner, A., Santos, F., & Sobral, M. (2003). Escala de depressão geriátrica, Tradução portuguesa da Geriatric Depression Inventory. Escalas e testes na demência [Scales and tests in dementia] (2nd ed., pp. 65-67). Lisboa: Grupo de Estudos de Envelhecimento Cerebral e Demência

Bartlett, M. S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various χ2 approximations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 16(2), 296-298. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2984057

Beaudreau, S. A., & O’Hara, R. (2008). Late-life anxiety and cognitive impairment: a review. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(10), 790-803. https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e31817945c3

Beekman, A. T., Bremmer, M. A., Deeg, D. J., van Balkom, A. J., Smit, J. H., de Beurs, E., van Dyck, R., van Tilburg, W. (1998). Anxiety disorders in later life: a report from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13(10), 717-726. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1166(1998100)13:10<717::aid-gps857>3.0.co;2-m

Boddice, G., Pachana, N. A., & Byrne, G. J. (2008). The clinical utility of the geriatric anxiety inventory in older adults with cognitive impairment. Nursing Older People, 20(8), 36-39. https://doi.org/10.7748/nop2008.10.20.8.36.c6809

Bound, F. (2005). Keywords in the history of medicine. Anxiety. The Lancet, 363(9418), 1407. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16077-7

Brenes, G. A., Guralnik, J. M., Williamson, J. D., Fried, L. P., Simpson, C., Simonsick, E. M., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2005). The influence of anxiety on the progression of disability. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(1), 34-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53007.x

Brown, P. J., & Roose, S. P. (2011). Age and anxiety and depressive symptoms: The effect on domains of quality of life. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(12), 1260-1266. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2675

Bryant, C. (2010). Anxiety and depression in old age: Challenges in recognition and diagnosis. International Psychogeriatrics, 22(04), 511-513. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610209991785

Bryant, C., Jackson, H., & Ames, D. (2008). The prevalence of anxiety in older adults: Methodological issues and a review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109(3), 233-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.11.008

Butler, R. N. (1975). Psychiatry and the elderly: An overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132(9), 893-900. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.132.9.893

Byrne, G. J., Pachana, N. A., Arnold, E., Chalk, J. B., & Appadurai, K. (2008). Performance characteristics of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in memory clinic attendees. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 4(4), T441-T442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2008.05.1314

Byrne, G. J., & Pachana, N. A. (2010). Development and validation of a short form of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory - the GAI-SF. International Psychogeriatrics, 23(01), 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210001237

Byrne, G. J., Pachana, N. A., Gonçalves, D. C., Arnold, E., King, R., & Keat Khoo, S. (2010). Psychometric properties and health correlates of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Australian community-residing older women. Aging & Mental Health, 14(3), 247-254. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607861003587628

Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1(2), 245-276. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10

Comer, R. J. (2013). Abnormal psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Cook, J. M., Orvaschel, H., Simco, E., Hersen, M., & Joiner, T. (2004). A test of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in older adult psychiatric outpatients. Psychology and Aging, 19(3), 444-451. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.3.444

Cohen, J. W. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cravello, L., Palmer, K., de Girolamo, G., Caltagirone, C., & Spalletta, G. (2010). Neuropsychiatric symptoms and syndromes in institutionalized elderly people without dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 23(03), 425-434. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210001304

de Visser, L., van der Knaap, L. J., van de Loo, A. J. A. E., van der Weerd, C. M. M., Ohl, F., & van den Bos, R. (2010). Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: Towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety. Neuropsychologia, 48(6), 1598-1606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.01.027

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (2010). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

Diefenbach, G. J., Robison, J. T., Tolina, D. F., & Blank, K. (2004). Late-life anxiety disorders among Puerto Rican primary care patients: Impact on well-being, functioning, and service utilization. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18(6), 841-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2003.10.005

Dong, X., Chen, R., & Simon, M. A. (2014). Anxiety among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69(Suppl. 2), S61-S67. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glu178

Espírito Santo, H., & Daniel, F. (2010). Inventário Geriátrico de Ansiedade [Geriatric Anxiety Inventory] (Assessment instrument). Coimbra: Instituto Superior Miguel Torga. Retrieved from http://repositorio.ismt.pt/handle/123456789/675

Espírito-Santo, H. (2011). Questionário de Avaliação de Sinais de Doença [Assessment Questionnaire of Disease Signs] (Unpublished assessment instrument). Coimbra: Instituto Superior Miguel Torga.

Espírito-Santo, H., Lemos, L., Pena, I. T., Guadalupe, S., Daniel, F., & Vicente, H. T. (2014). Development of a Geriatric Functionality Scale to screen for functional ability. Revista de Saúde Pública, 48(n. esp.), 124.

Faculdade de Ciências Médicas., Universidade Nova de Lisboa [FCM-UNL]. (2013). Estudo epidemiológico nacional de saúde mental. 1.º relatório [Epidemiology National study of mental health. 1st report]. Lisboa: Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.

Fingerhood, M. (2000). Substance abuse in older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(8), 985-995. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2000.tb06900.x

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6

Fundação Francisco Manuel dos Santos. (2015). População residente segundo os Censos: Total e por grandes grupos etários - Municípios. Onde há mais e menos jovens, idosos ou pessoas em idade activa? [Resident population according to Census: total and by age groups - Municipalities. Where there is more and less young, elderly, or people of working age?]. Retrieved from https://www.pordata.pt/Municipios/População+residente+segundo+os+Censos+total+e+por+grandes+grupos+etários-22

Gale, C. R., Sayer, A. A., Cooper, C., Dennison, E. M., Starr, J. M., Whalley, L. J., Gallacher, J. E., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Kuh, D., Hardy, R., Craig, L., Deary, I. J., HALCyon Study Team. (2011). Factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in five cohorts of community-based older people: The HALCyon (Healthy Ageing across the Life Course) Programme. Psychological Medicine, 41(10), 2057-2073. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711000195

Gabbard, G. O. (1998). Psiquiatria psicodinâmica: Baseado no DSM-IV [Psychodynamic psychiatry: Based on DSM-IV] (2nd ed.). Porto Alegre: ArtMed.

Gatz, M., & Pearson, C. G. (1988). Ageism revised and the provision of psychological services. American Psychologist, 43(3), 184-188. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.43.3.184

GEP (2007-2014). Carta social. Gabinete de Estratégia e Planeamento. Retrieved from http://www.cartasocial.pt/index1.php

Guerreiro, M., Silva, A. P., Botelho, M., Leitão, O., Castro-Caldas, A., & Garcia, C. (1994). Adaptação à população portuguesa da tradução do Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) [Adaptation to the Portuguese population of the translation of the Mini Mental State Examination]. Revista Portuguesa de Neurologia, 1, 9-10.

Headey, B., Kelley, J., & Wearing, A. (1993). Dimensions of mental health: Life satisfaction, positive affect, anxiety and depression. Social Indicators Research, 29(1), 63-82. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01136197

Henderson, A. S., Jorm, A. F., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P., Christensen, H., & Rodgers, B. (1998). Symptoms of depression and anxiety during adult life: Evidence for a decline in prevalence with age. Psychological Medicine, 28(6), 1321-1328. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291798007570

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

INE (Instituto Nacional de Estatística), & INSA (Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge) (2009). Inquérito Nacional de Saúde 2005-2006 [National Health Survey 2005-2006]. Lisboa: INE e INSA. Retrieved from http://www.insa.pt/sites/INSA/Portugues/Publicacoes/Outros/Documents/Epidemiologia/INS_05_06.pdf

Johansen, J. P. (2013). Anxiety is the sum of its parts. Nature, 496(7444), 174-175. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12087

Jorm, A. F. (2000). Does old age reduce the risk of anxiety and depression? A review of epidemiological studies across the adult life span. Psychological Medicine, 30(1), 11-22. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291799001452

Kaiser, H. F. (1970). A second generation little jiffy. Psychometrika, 35(4), 401-415. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02291817

Kessler, R. C., & Frank, R. G. (1997). The impact of psychiatric disorders on work loss days. Psychological Medicine, 27(4), 861-873. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291797004807

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Koffel, E., & Watson, D. (2009). The two-factor structure of sleep complaints and its relation to depression and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 183-194. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013945

Kring, A. M., Johnson, S. L., Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (2010). Abnormal psychology (11nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Kuerbis, A., Sacco, P., Blazer, D. G., & Moore, A. A. (2014). Substance abuse among older adults. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 30(3), 629-654. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cger.2014.04.008Simoni

Ladin, K. (2008). Risk of late-life depression across 10 European Union countries: Deconstructing the education effect. Journal of Aging and Health, 20(6), 653-670. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264308321002

Lenze, E. J., Mulsant, B. H., Shear, M. K., Schulberg, H. C., Dew, M. A., Begley, A. E., … Reynolds III, C. F. (2000). Comorbid anxiety disorders in depressed elderly patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(5), 722-728. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.722

Martiny, C., de Oliveira e Silva, A. C., Nardi, A. E., & Pachana, N. A. (2011). Tradução e adaptação transcultural da versão brasileira do Inventário de Ansiedade Geriátrica (GAI) [Translation and cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory]. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 38(1), 8-12. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-60832011000100003

Matheson, S. F., Byrne, G. J., Dissanayaka, N. N. W., Pachana, N. A., Mellick, G. D., O'Sullivan, J. D., ... Marsh, R. (2012). Validity and reliability of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory in Parkinson's disease. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 31(1), 13-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-6612.2010.00487.x

Mendlowicz, M. V., & Stein, M. B. (2000). Quality of life in individuals with anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(5), 669-682. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.669

Mohlman, J., Bryant, C., Lenze, E. J., Stanley, M. A., Gum, A., Flint, A., … Craske, M. G. (2012). Improving recognition of late life anxiety disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition: Observations and recommendations of the Advisory Committee to the Lifespan Disorders Work Group. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(6), 549-56. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2752

Norton, J., Ancelin, M.-L., Stewart, R., Berr, C., Ritchie, K., & Carrière, I. (2012). Anxiety symptoms and disorder predict activity limitations in the elderly. Journal of Affective Disorders, 141(2-3), 276-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.04.002

Orbach, A. (1994). Psychotherapy in the third age. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 11, 221-231. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0118.1994.tb00724.x

Organização Mundial de Saúde. (2005). Envelhecimento ativo: Uma política de saúde [Active aging: A health policy] (S. Gontijo, Trad.). Brasília: Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde.

Pachana, N. A., Byrne, G. J., Siddle, H., Koloski, N., Harley, E., & Arnold, E. (2007). Development and validation of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. International Psychogeriatrics, 19(1), 103-114. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610206003504

Pachana, N. A., & Byrne, G. J. (2011). The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: International use and future directions. Australian Psychologist, 47(1), 33-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-9544.2011.00052.x

Pachana, N. A., McLaughlin, D., Leung, J., Byrne, G. J., & Dobson, A. (2011). Anxiety and depression in adults in their eighties: Do gender differences remain? International Psychogeriatrics, 24(01), 145-150. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610211001372

Pardal, A., Espirito-Santo, H., Lemos, L., Matreno, J., Amaro, H., Guadalupe, S., … Gonçalves, R. (2013). Social suport, mental health, and satisfaction with life in institutionalized elderly. European Psychiatry, 28(Supl. 1). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-9338(13)76565-9

Paúl, C., & Fonseca, A. M. (2001). Psicossociologia da saúde [Health psychosociology]. Lisboa: Climepsi.

Potvin, O., Bergua, V., Swendsen, J., Meillon, C., Tzourio, C., Ritchie, K., ... Amieva, H. (2013). Anxiety and 10-year risk of incident and recurrent depressive symptomatology in older adults. Depression and Anxiety, 30(6), 554-563. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22101

Rabasquinho, C., & Pereira, H. (2007). Género e saúde mental: uma abordagem epidemiológica [Gender and mental health: An epidemiological approach]. Análise Psicológica, 3(XXV), 439-454. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.mec.pt/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0870-82312007000300010

Rapaport, M. H., Clary, C., Fayyad, R., & Endicott, J. (2005). Quality-of-life impairment in depressive and anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(6), 1171-1178. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1171

Ribeiro, O., Paul, C., Simões, M. R., & Firmino, H. (2011). Portuguese version of the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory: Transcultural adaptation and psychometric validation. Aging & Mental Health, 15(6), 742-748. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2011.562177

Riedel-Heller, S. G., Busse, A., & Angermeyer, M. C. (2006). The state of mental health in old-age across the “old” European Union — A systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113(5), 388-401. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00632.x

Robb, C., Chen, H., & Haley, W. E. (2002). Ageism in mental health and health care: A critical review. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 8(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1013013322947

Rozzini, L., Chilovi, B. V., & Peli, M. (2009). Anxiety symptoms in mild cognitive impairment. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(3), 300-305. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2106

Simoni-Wastila, L., & Yang, H. K. (2006). Psychoactive drug abuse in older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 4(4), 380-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjopharm.2006.10.002

Scott, T., Mackenzie, C. S., Chipperfield, J. G., & Sareen, J. (2010). Mental health service use among Canadian older adults with anxiety disorders and clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Aging & Mental Health, 14(7), 790-800. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607861003713273

Segal, D. L., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L., & Yochim, B. P. (2010). Development and initial validation of a self-report assessment tool for anxiety among older adults: The Geriatric Anxiety Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(7), 709-714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002

Schaub, R. T., & Linden, M. (2000). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in the old and very old: results from the Berlin Aging Study (BASE). Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41(2-Suppl. S1), 48-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0010-440x(00)80008-5

Shapiro, A. M., Roberts, J. E., & Beck, J. G. (1999). Differentiating symptoms of anxiety and depression in older adults: Distinct cognitive and affective profiles? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23(1), 53-74. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1018710707960

Sheikh, J. I. (2003) Anxiety in older adults: Assessment and management of three common presentations. Geriatrics, 58(5), 44-45.

Simões, A. (1992). Ulterior validação de uma escala de satisfação com a vida (SWLS) [Further validation of a scale of satisfaction with life]. Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia, 26(3), 503-515.

Simões, A. (1993). São os homens mais agressivos que as mulheres? [Are men more aggressive than women?]. Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia, 27(3), 387-404.

Therrien, Z., & Hunsley, J. (2012). Assessment of anxiety in older adults: A systematic review of commonly used measures. Aging & Mental Health, 16(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2011.602960

Thurstone, L. L. (1947). Multiple factor analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Trocóniz, M. I., & Montorio, I. (1999). Comportamiento y salud en la vejez [Behavior and health in old age]. In M. I. F. Trocóniz & I. Montorio (Eds.), Gerontologia conductual: Intervención y ámbitos de aplicación [Behavioral gerontology: Intervention and areas of application] (pp. 115-137). Madrid: Editorial Síntesis.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: UN-DESA (2013). World population ageing 2013. ST/ESA/SER.A/348. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WorldPopulationAgeing2013.pdf

Verhoeven, J. E., Revesz, D., van Oppen, P., Epel, E. S., Wolkowitz, O. M., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2015). Anxiety disorders and accelerated cellular ageing. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(5), 371-378. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.151027

Watkins, M. W. (2000, February 4). Monte Carlo PCA for parallel analysis [Computer software]. State College, PA: Ed e Psych Associates. Retrieved from http://www.softpedia.com/get/Others/Home-Education/Monte-Carlo-PCA-for-Parallel-Analysis.shtml

Wang, Z., Shu, D., Dong, B., Luo, L., & Hao, Q. (2013). Anxiety disorders and its risk factors among the Sichuan empty-nest older adults: A cross-sectional study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56(2), 298-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2012.08.016

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Castriotta, N., Lenze, E. J., Stanley, M. A., & Craske, M. G. (2010). Anxiety disorders in older adults: a comprehensive review. Depression and Anxiety, 27(2), 190-211. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20653

Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V. O. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 37-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4


Apontadores

  • Não há apontadores.


Copyright (c) 2015 Fernanda Daniel, Henrique Vicente, Sónia Guadalupe, Alexandre Silva, & Helena Espirito Santo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 

 

 


Links rápidos para

Autores

Registe-se como novo autor

Acompanhe o estado das suas submissões

Submeta um novo manuscrito

Atualize os detalhes no seu perfil

Consulte as diretrizes para os autores

Definição de Autoria

 

Links rápidos para

Revisores

 

Registe-se como novo Revisor

Visão geral de uma revisão em curso

Atualize os detalhes no seu perfil

Processo para realizar revisões

Diretrizes adicionais