Memória e envelhecimento: Qual o real impacto da idade?

Palavras-chave: Envelhecimento, Memória, Institucionalização, Características sociodemográficas

Resumo

Objetivos. O défice mnésico é uma das alterações cognitivas que mais afeta as pessoas idosas. A idade é considerada um dos fatores de relevo nas alterações de memória, inclusivamente pelas próprias pessoas idosas. A investigação tem mostrado que existem outros fatores além da idade que afetam a memória das pessoas idosas. Contudo, fica por esclarecer qual o real papel da idade sobre a memória quando é controlada a influência de outras variáveis. Assim, o presente estudo pretende analisar o impacto da idade no funcionamento mnésico de pessoas idosas e verificar se, ao controlar o papel de outras variáveis (sexo, escolaridade, profissão, situação civil, situação residencial e situação clínica), esse potencial impacto se mantém.

Métodos. A amostra global foi constituída por 1126 participantes (283 homens e 843 mulheres; 226 residentes na comunidade e 900 em resposta social dirigida à população idosa) com idades compreendidas entre os 60 e os 100 anos. A avaliação foi realizada com recurso aos itens do Mini-Mental State Examination (memória de trabalho), o fator do Montreal Cognitive Assessment (memória declarativa verbal) e Figura Complexa de Rey-Osterrieth (memória visuoespacial).

Resultados. Globalmente, a idade, escolaridade, profissão, situação civil, residencial e clínica influenciaram a memória de forma diferenciada consoante o tipo de memória. As análises de regressão hierárquica mostraram que a idade é um fator preditivo em todos os tipos de memória. Emergiram ainda outros fatores preditivos com coeficientes de regressão superiores à idade conforme o tipo de memória (exceto na memória de trabalho).

Conclusões. A idade, a escolaridade e a profissão influenciam a memória, assim como os fatores que potencialmente estimulam cognitiva e socialmente (como ter um companheiro e residir na comunidade). Os resultados apontam para a importância de intervir em pessoas em respostas sociais, mais idosas, sem companheiro, com baixa escolaridade e profissão manual.

 

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Biografias Autor

Helena Espirito-Santo, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
Professora Auxiliar, Neurociências, Neuropsicologia e Psicopatologia do AdultoCo-cordenadora, Departamento de Investigação & Desenvolvimento do ISMTCoordenadora, Gabinete de Apoio Psicológico do ISMT 
Inês Torres Pena, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
Doutorada em Psicologia
Inês Queiroz Garcia, Instituto Superior Miguel Torga
Mestre em Psicologia Clínica

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Publicado
2016-09-30
Como Citar
Espirito-Santo, H., Pena, I. T., Garcia, I. Q., Pires, C. F., Couto, M., & Daniel, F. (2016). Memória e envelhecimento: Qual o real impacto da idade?. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 2(2), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.7342/ismt.rpics.2016.2.2.40
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