Medos associados à imagem corporal na adolescência: desenvolvimento e validação da Escala de Ansiedade e Evitamento de Situações devido ao Peso e Aparência Física

  • Ana Rita Silva Costa ISMT-Instituto Superior Miguel Torga https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9256-1304
  • Marina Cunha ISMT-Instituto Superior Miguel TorgaCINEICC, FPCE - Centro de Investigação do Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenções Cognitivo-comportamentais da Universidade de Coimbra https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5957-1903
  • Lara Palmeira CINEICC, FPCE- Centro de Investigação do Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenções Cognitivo-comportamentais da Universidade de Coimbra https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7191-1002
  • Margarida Couto ISMT- Instituto Superior Miguel Torga https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8473-181X
  • Ana Galhardo ISMT- Instituto Superior Miguel TorgaCINEICC, FPCE - Centro de Investigação do Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenções Cognitivo-comportamentais da Universidade de Coimbra https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3484-6683
Palavras-chave: Adolescência, Evitamento, Experiências de Vergonha, Experiências de Vitimização, Imagem Corporal

Resumo

Objetivo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fundamental o desenvolvimento e validação de um novo instrumento para adolescentes: a Escala de Ansiedade e Evitamento de Situações devido ao Peso e Aparência Física (EAESPAF).

Métodos: A amostra incluiu 357 adolescentes, 195 do sexo masculino e 162 do sexo feminino, com idades entre os 12 e os 18 anos, a frequentarem o 3.º ciclo do ensino básico e ensino secundário. Para além do instrumento citado, os jovens preencheram um conjunto de questionários de autorresposta que avaliam sintomas de depressão, ansiedade, stress, experiências de bullyinge sentimentos de vergonha relacionados com a aparência física e peso.

Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que as duas subescalas (ansiedade/desconforto e evitamento) da EAESPAF apresentam uma estrutura fatorial constituída por dois fatores. Ambas as subescalas revelaram uma excelente consistência interna (αde Cronbach = 0,91), com uma boa qualidade dos itens e uma adequada estabilidade temporal. Foram encontradas correlações positivas significativas entre as subescalas da EAESPAF e os sentimentos de vergonha, as experiências de vitimização, e sintomas psicopatológicos (depressão, ansiedade e stress). O sexo feminino revelou valores significativamente mais elevados que o sexo masculino no total da subescala de ansiedade e no Fator 2 (de ambas as subescalas de ansiedade e de evitamento), o qual se relaciona sobretudo com uma maior exposição na interação com os outros.

Conclusões: Na generalidade a EAESPAF é um instrumento fidedigno e válido para a avaliação de medos relacionados com a aparência física e peso durante a adolescência.

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Publicado
2018-10-01
Como Citar
Costa, A. R., Cunha, M., Palmeira, L., Couto, M., & Galhardo, A. (2018). Medos associados à imagem corporal na adolescência: desenvolvimento e validação da Escala de Ansiedade e Evitamento de Situações devido ao Peso e Aparência Física. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 4(2), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.31211/rpics.2018.4.2.68
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Artigo Original