A relação entre o criticismo do treinador e a ansiedade dos atletas: O papel do mindfulness e do autojulgamento

Autores

  • Rita Gama Instituto Superior Miguel Torga https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7175-7965
  • Marina Cunha Centro de Investigação em Neuropsicologia e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental – Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5957-1903
  • Cláudia Ferreira Centro de Investigação do Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da EducaçãoUniversidade de Coimbra https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7020-9606
  • Ana Galhardo Instituto Superior Miguel Torga; Centro de Investigação em Neuropsicologia e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental – Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3484-6683
  • Sara Oliveira Centro de Investigação em Neuropsicologia e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental – Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2524-918X

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31211/rpics.2021.7.2.216

Palavras-chave:

Ansiedade desportiva, Perceção de atitudes críticas do treinador, Mindfulness, Autocompaixão, Autojulgamento

Resumo

Contexto e Objetivo: Analisou-se de que forma a perceção dos atletas acerca das atitudes críticas do treinador teve efeito na ansiedade desportiva, explorando o papel dos traços de mindfulness e das atitudes de autocompaixão e de autojulgamento dos atletas. Métodos: A amostra incluiu 184 atletas adolescentes (150 rapazes e 34 raparigas), com idades entre os 12 e os 18 anos (M = 14,30; DP = 1,96) que completaram um protocolo composto por quatro instrumentos de autorresposta que avaliaram a ansiedade desportiva, a perceção das atitudes críticas do treinador, o mindfulness, autocompaixão e autojulgamento. Resultados: A ansiedade desportiva demonstrou uma associação positiva com as atitudes críticas do treinador e com o autojulgamento, e uma associação negativa com o mindfulness. O mindfulness demonstrou uma associação negativa com o autojulgamento e com a perceção que os atletas têm acerca das atitudes críticas do treinador. O autojulgamento demonstrou-se positivamente associado com as atitudes críticas do treinador. O modelo preditor explicou 45% da variância da ansiedade desportiva, sendo o mindfulness e o autojulgamento os únicos preditores. Os resultados da Path Analysis indicaram que o efeito das atitudes críticas do treinador na ansiedade desportiva foi totalmente mediado pelo mindfulness e pelo autojulgamento do atleta. Conclusões: Os dados sugerem que os atletas que percecionam mais atitudes críticas por parte do treinador, que têm mais atitudes de autojulgamento, e menos competências de autoconsciência e atenção plena, tendem a apresentar maiores níveis de ansiedade desportiva. O presente estudo teve um papel inovador ao evidenciar a forma específica como estas variáveis estão associadas, sugerindo que o desenvolvimento de competências de mindfulness e a diminuição de atitudes de autojulgamento podem ser úteis na diminuição do impacto das atitudes críticas do treinador na ansiedade competitiva.

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Publicado

2021-11-30

Como Citar

Madeira Gama, R. M., Cunha, M., Ferreira, C. ., Galhardo, A., & Oliveira, S. (2021). A relação entre o criticismo do treinador e a ansiedade dos atletas: O papel do mindfulness e do autojulgamento. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 7(2), 43–60. https://doi.org/10.31211/rpics.2021.7.2.216

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