Medos associados à imagem corporal na adolescência: desenvolvimento e validação da Escala de Ansiedade e Evitamento de Situações devido ao Peso e Aparência Física

Palavras-chave: Adolescência, Evitamento, Experiências de Vergonha, Experiências de Vitimização, Imagem Corporal

Resumo

Objetivo: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fundamental o desenvolvimento e validação de um novo instrumento para adolescentes: a Escala de Ansiedade e Evitamento de Situações devido ao Peso e Aparência Física (EAESPAF).

Métodos: A amostra incluiu 357 adolescentes, 195 do sexo masculino e 162 do sexo feminino, com idades entre os 12 e os 18 anos, a frequentarem o 3.º ciclo do ensino básico e ensino secundário. Para além do instrumento citado, os jovens preencheram um conjunto de questionários de autorresposta que avaliam sintomas de depressão, ansiedade, stress, experiências de bullyinge sentimentos de vergonha relacionados com a aparência física e peso.

Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que as duas subescalas (ansiedade/desconforto e evitamento) da EAESPAF apresentam uma estrutura fatorial constituída por dois fatores. Ambas as subescalas revelaram uma excelente consistência interna (αde Cronbach = 0,91), com uma boa qualidade dos itens e uma adequada estabilidade temporal. Foram encontradas correlações positivas significativas entre as subescalas da EAESPAF e os sentimentos de vergonha, as experiências de vitimização, e sintomas psicopatológicos (depressão, ansiedade e stress). O sexo feminino revelou valores significativamente mais elevados que o sexo masculino no total da subescala de ansiedade e no Fator 2 (de ambas as subescalas de ansiedade e de evitamento), o qual se relaciona sobretudo com uma maior exposição na interação com os outros.

Conclusões: Na generalidade a EAESPAF é um instrumento fidedigno e válido para a avaliação de medos relacionados com a aparência física e peso durante a adolescência.

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Referências

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Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, C. (2011). The validation of the Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire: Exploring the moderator effect of acceptance on disordered eating. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 11(3), 327–345. [Google Scholar] [PDF]

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Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, C. (2011). The validation of the Body Image Acceptance and Action Questionnaire: Exploring the moderator effect of acceptance on disordered eating. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 11(3), 327–345. [Google Scholar] [PDF]

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Gilbert, P. (1997). The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in shame, humiliation, guilt and therapy. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70(2), 113–147. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

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Hill, A. J. (2011). Body image of assessment of children. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (pp. 138–145). New York, NY: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]

Kim, S., Thibodeau, R., & Jorgensen, R. S. (2011). Shame, guilt, and depressive symptoms: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 68–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]

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Lovibond, S., & Lovibond, P. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation. [Google Scholar]

Lunde, C., Frisén, A., & Hwang, C. P. (2006). Is peer victimization related to body esteem in 10-year-old girls and boys? Body Image, 3(1), 25–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Marôco, J. (2010). Análise estatística: Com utilização do SPSS [Statistical analysis: Using SPSS]. Lisboa: Edições Sílabo. [Google Scholar]

Marta-Simões, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Seeking a perfect body look: Feeding the pathogenic impact of shame? Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 21(3), 477–485. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Matos, M., Simões, C., Tomé, G., Gaspar, T., Diniz, J. A., & Equipa do Projecto Aventura Social. (2006). Indicadores de saúde dos adolescentes portugueses [Health indicators of Portuguese adolescents] (Report). [Google Scholar] [PDF]

Mendes, A. L., Ferreira, C., & Marta-Simões, J. (2016). Experiential avoidance versus decentering abilities: The role of different emotional processes on disordered eating. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. Published online. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Menzel, J. E., Krawczyk, R., & Thompson, J. K. (2011). Attitudinal assessment of body image for adolescents and adults. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (pp. 154–169). New York, NY: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]

Menzel, J. E., Schaefer, L. M., Burke, N. L., Mayhew, L. L., Brannick, M. T., & Thompson, J. K. (2010). Appearance-related teasing, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating: A meta-analysis. Body Image, 7(4), 261–270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. (2005). Mental representations of attachment security: Theoretical foundations for a positive social psychology. In M. W. Baldwin (Ed.), Interpersonal cognition (pp. 233–266). New York, NY: Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]

Nanu, C., Tăut, D., & Băban, A. (2014). Why adolescents are not happy with their body image? Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies, (2), 1-20. [Google Scholar] [PDF]

Niemeier, H. M. (2003). Clinical implications of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in college women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B-The Physical Sciences and Engineering, 65, 1035. [Google Scholar] [URL]

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Publicado
2018-10-01
Como Citar
Costa, A. R. S., Cunha, M., Palmeira, L., Couto, M., & Galhardo, A. (2018). Medos associados à imagem corporal na adolescência: desenvolvimento e validação da Escala de Ansiedade e Evitamento de Situações devido ao Peso e Aparência Física. Revista Portuguesa De Investigação Comportamental E Social, 4(2), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.31211/rpics.2018.4.2.68
Secção
Artigo Original